The earthquake happened on the 12th of June 2010.
- 1/3 of the buildings collapsed it the capital.
- 200,000 people died.
- 1/4 of a million people injured.
- 1.3 million homeless
- 300,000 buildings collapsed
- Water, communications and electricity networks were all damaged
- Little food or water available.
- A million people forced to sleep in the streets
- Billions of dollars worth of damage caused
Due to knowledge that future quakes are likely to occur, various measures have had to be put into places.
Earthquake simulations are run to see the panic which would occur in the real situation. People can practice organising emergency services for the situation. They are also to see how children react. Lots of screaming and running around.
The emergency services are being trained to act as best they can, by staying calm instead of running around, for instance.
The earthquake has had the greatest effect on the poor long term.
Even before the earthquake, there were large inequalities. The earthquake worsened this.
Half of the population was below the poverty line; after the earthquake, this rose to 80%.
Building resilience and Future capacity
Some people have had to spend 3 years in their camps. They had:
NGOs helped the local people by:
- Improving financial support for rebuilding
- Improving infrastructure
- Training stonemasons to make future settlements stronger
- Building new settlements on outskirts
The relocated people would have had to still pay rent for housing had the refugee camps not been set up; the camps helped provide shelter for those who would not have been able to afford this in their current financial situation.
In the refugee camps, people had to travel to work. Often the fees of transport were so expensive that people could spend more money travelling to and fro between work and the camps than they would earn. So, many people had taken to just sleeping rough outside their offices during the week and only coming home at weekends.
There were toilets in the camps so there was one between every five families. One of the main aims of the new buildings was to remove this issue.
- Have to travel to work
- Spaced out buildings
- No heavy tiles
- Use local technology so homes can be fixed by local people.
- Buildings were built with plenty of open spaces, so people can get away from falling buildings more quickly.
- Buildings have only a few storeys, so there’s less to collapse in during future quakes, and also have timber frames, which are more flexible, so less likely to collapse in a future earthquake.
- Lightweight structures, and only using light weight tiles means that if anything collapses in the future, it will be less damaging to anybody around.
Creditors died with the earthquake
- Businesses have to be reset up again
- Oxfam helped with this:
- Financial security to support many businesses
- Monthly allowances
Most food was imported.
Oxfam was trialing different techniques in Haiti to get good crop growth. Oxfam funded small rice mills to get a better price at the market for farmers. Unprocessed rice is worth far less, so by allowing the rice mills to be more available, farmers can get more profits, allowing rural areas to support themselves better in the aftermath. With more rice mills, it is overall cheaper to use them.
Profits from mills help pay for drainage channels which increase yield again. This is an overall positive multiplier effect.
Land reform is a necessary feature of the rebuilding. Before the earthquake, unclear laws on land ownership meant that when the earthquake hit, camps had to be built in poor sites as the owners could not be tracked down and asked permission to use any land closer to the capital. Most of the land is only claimed by a few people, and overall this makes it hard to make long term investments. Companies and investors want a guaranteed pay out, which they can’t get from the unclear laws as it was.
Girls are often called “Too many” or “Little mistake”. In the 1800s there was a famine in the PRC which led to an outbreak of civil war in Huaipen.
Girls were killed because they were another mouth to feed. The boys then grew up to have no one to marry. There were hundreds of thousands of unmarried men, who became rebels. They almost overthrew the emperor.
Now there are 100 women for every 117 men. 80 million men have no hope of (heterosexual) marriage (or just marriage if they stay in the PRC). The age gap between couples has only exacerbated this. Old grooms will take teenage wives which only makes the situation worse for the next generation.
There are now whole bachelor villages refered to as “bare branches”. They used to become monks, soldiers or eunuchs. Now they move into the cities.
There has been an outbreak of female abductions, where women are sold to families looking for daughters in law or as prostitutes for male dominated cities. Selective abortion has been banned by the government with the official statement “girls are fine descendants too”.