France- Energy Mix

1973 Energy Mix

  • 40% coal
  • 17% oil
  • 19% gas
  • 5% nuclear
  • 6% HEP
  • 13% other renewables

2005 Energy Mix

  • 5% coal
  • 32% oil
  • 15% gas
  • 42% nuclear
  • 2% HEP
  • 4% other renewables

France imports 99% of its oil, largely from Norway and OPEC.

Coal was previously mined in the North East of France but  the difficulty of extracting new coal and the expense of accessing it caused the closure of the remaining coal mines at the beginning of the 21st century. The oil crisis of 1973 drove the creation of 59 nuclear power stations.

The need to comply to greenhouse gas emission regulations has led to a resurgence in interest in nuclear power, largely in replacing, not removing, old plants. Nearly 60,000 people work in the nuclear power plants. Their expertise has allowed the French company EDF to work internationally.

HEP power is concentrated in the alps and along the river Rhone. The Rhone produces 25% of France’s HEP, which is 5% of the country’s generated electricity overall.

There are plans to import electricity from Northern Africa. For instance, Algeria, a former French colony, has operational solar plants already.

France was an early pioneer of tidal power and built a tidal system across the river Rance, but have built no further commercial tidal energy projects.

Most oil used in France is used in transport or heating. HEP is used to back up the nuclear power supply at peak times.

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India and Childbirth

Childbirth as employment

Indian women are on average paid US$11,000 to surrogate a Western child. There are huge queues to become a surrogate mother, as it’s worth up to 7 years’ wages per child. Some have chosen to do this, but others are forced to by relatives. Normally a US baby is born every 14 days in each maternity ward.

Some women are paid 3 times as much to donate twice as many eggs as usual (which is also done in Spain and Cyprus. In the UK it’s illegal to sell human sex cells for more than about £1,000.). Huge hormone increases are needed to develop all these eggs, which can cause early menopause and increased risks of cancer. Some dosages done in LICs can be so high that they risk death just from that.

Attitudes to women

When Gandhi protested, he said he wanted to see an India where men
and women were treated as equals. Nehru on Independence Day said that “An India freed from Imperialism would built up a prosperous, democratic and progressive nation, and ensure justice to every man and woman”. This has yet to be achieved.

India has high dowries and a strong desire to marry women to richer men, which only increases the dowry further. Girls are basically seen as useless (unless they can produce lots of surrogate babies, or marry off to a wealthy man).

50 years after independence, women compared to men are:

  • Less economically involved
  • Less literate
  • Expected to live a shorter life

It is an Indian “tradition” to murder girls. Rajputs, Sikhs and other warrior castes prefer daughters to marry to a higher ranked man, leading to an expensive dowry… or a rapid disposal of the child.

In 1981, only the rural North-West had much of an excess of boys. In 1991 child killing had spread. For the first time in history, all of the Indian cities had an excess of boys.

Under British rule

The British were concerned at a census in 1871, where there were 972 women for every 1,000 men (The 1991 figure was 929 women per 1,000 men). In some villages in the census, there were no young girls. A female infanticide act was brought in with heavy penalties for child murder and policemen stationed in prone areas. Still, in 1891, some areas had twice as many boys as girls.

Modern day

Dowries are now often 50% of a family’s disposable income; killing girls has become more common with India’s quickly developing economy. The treatment of girls varies based on the region; in Kerala, girls are educated and a more liberal mindset is taken- daughters are unharmed; meanwhile in the North and Northwest, many daughters are murdered.

Wives play little role in the fields and their value there is reduced further by farm machinery, so girls pay the price for this. The untouchable castes are, interestingly, untouched, as their families need all the income they can get from their children.

Some villages have a 3:1 ratio of boys to girls. Often the births and deaths of women go unreported. If the deaths of girls are admitted to, excuses are given such as the following:

  • “Pneumonia”
  • “Baby just went stiff”

The boys are saved from this because apparently “The correct gifts were given to the gods”.

The Dowry Prohibition Act was introduced in 1961, but has had little effect as the husband’s relatives will ask for commodities such as TVs- and also because people have just ignored the law.

Dowry murder is now a common issue. If a bride’s family doesn’t pay, she has an “accident” with a kerosene stove. At least 2,000 are killed per year by this, and it wasn’t common until the 1970’s.

Childbirth

For a boy, mothers are in hospital for several days. For a girl, they will leave very soon after the birth.

Traditional midwives (dais) will often kill a girl for a fee of 150 rupees (roughly £2). They claim they can assess the sex before birth; in some places each dais admits to a murder every week.

Relatives will often kill the child themselves, or force the mother to feed the baby tobacco, which is highly poisonous to an infant; if she refuses, she is kicked out or murdered herself. These sorts of killings were once only practiced by the higher castes, but trying to copy their “betters” has meant people through all aspects of society could be practicing it. As the economy has improved, the rates of murders have risen.

Kaller– Southern India

Kaller was a criminal area while India was ruled by a Raj. Many were imprisoned for banditry; women were assertive, worked hard and supported their families, especially while the men were jailed. They were poverty stricken, but there were no dowries or infanticides.

In 1958, a dam was built in the area. Some communities could grow cash crops but most stayed poor. Straight away, dowries were introduced in the area. Parents were desperate to marry off their daughters to richer families. It now has among the highest rates of infanticide in India.

In fact it is the place where, for the first time, someone was found guilty of infanticide in India. The mother was imprisoned, but the chances are that her husband forced her to.

Medical science and India’s infanticide

The World Health Organisation insists that sex is not a disease, so termination of a baby by sex is supposedly against international law. Many think prenatal diagnosis was invented to check the sex of the fetus, not to check for disease.

A herbal remedy called “Select” meant to turn girls into boys has been banned by the government.

Prenatal sex tests were banned in 1996, with a 3 year sentence and a heavy fine, but this doesn’t apply to private clinics. “Better 500 rupees today than 500,000 tomorrow” was the (now banned) slogan of one clinic. Bombay has 200 sex-screening clinics alone, with all most all female babies being aborted if found.

This process of rooting out girls is even easier with a portable system taken between villages. Up to a million girls are killed each year. The scanner costs an unskilled worker 2 months’ wages, but for them, this is financially worthwhile.

For the middle classes, private clinics have in vitro fertilisation followed by the selection of a desired sex, and of 12 clinics asked, not a single girl was requested.

(Image sources: http://designobserver.com/feature/gendered-arrangements-india/37993/ http://www.cghr.org/2011/05/selective-abortion-may-account-for-up-to-12-million-missing-girls-in-india-new-lancet-study/ https://ethicsalarms.com/2015/09/14/npr-was-going-on-today-about-the-terrible-scourge-of-sex-specific-abortion-in-india-and-how-girls-in-india-have-to-fight-for-their-rights-before-theyre-even-born-wait-what/  http://pmindia.gov.in/en/former_pm/shri-jawaharlal-nehru/  http://history1900s.about.com/od/people/a/gandhi.htm http://archive.indianexpress.com/news/sexselection-abortions-cause-of-missing-girls-in-india/1168185/

It should be noted I have not source 1 image here; that is for the home gender selection kit picture. Although it is reasonable to show the material that would be used’s advertising, I don’t want to facilitate anybody using it themselves.)

Norwegian Economy

Norway has a GDP of US$500.2 x10^9, and is growing by 2.2% annually. Per capita this is US$66,900 each.

Composition

  • 41% household
  • 21.3% government
  • 22.3% fixed capital
  • 3.8% inventories
  • 39% goods and services (internal tourism being included here)
  • -27.6% on imports

3.5% of the population is unemployed.

Norway has 67 paved runways for airplanes (which provides lots of locations for a tourist to arrive and minimises fuel emissions afterwards, but also has a large environmental effect in itself.)

Norway has a population of 3,109,059 people as of 2014.

 

Yorkshire glaciers

The North York Moors has several overflow channels which are thought to have cut through the moors during the last glacial period. The largest is Newtondale; which is 15km long and 80m deep. Peak flow would have been around 10,000 cumecs.

Ice lined the current coastline and trapped in water along the moors. Water couldn’t flow out of the ends of glaciers and built up inland in large lakes between the hills and the other glaciers. As the climate warmed, more water pooled there. The area became a glacier-dammed lake. Water level rose until it spilled over the lowest col, at 200m. The volumes of melt-water cut through the Newtondale overflow channel.

A similar process also occured nearby at Lake Pickering, cutting out the Kirkham Abbey Gorge, and several other sites were effected by the glaciers

Tourism in Tenerife

Tenerife is the largest of the Canary Islands, a part of Spanish territory off the West coast of Africa. It is dominated by a volcano called Mount Teide, which last erupted in 1909 and is 3,718m tall.

In the 2001 census, Tenerife has 778,000 people. This equates to a 380 people per km^2 population density. Tourism first started there in the 1960s and now accounts for 80% of the GDP. In 2005, about 70% of workers were involved somehow in tourism via service industries. Other industries supporting tourism supplies another 16% with jobs.

Attractions to tourists

  • Humid, subtropical climate

The effect of the Atlantic Ocean means that mean monthly temperatures only range from 18 degrees Celsius to 25 degrees. Sea surface temperatures reach up to 23 degrees. It does not frequently fall below 15 degrees.

Windward slopes receive far more rain than other parts of the island, as do the higher altitude areas due to rain shadowing. The island has a nigh permanent cloud layer because of the orthographic effect of Mount Teide. Because the top of the mountain is so much higher than the cloud layer of 2,000m, the peak area is one of the driest points on the island.

  • Although Tenerife is naturally a rocky island, sand is imported to form beaches (such as Playa De Las Americas and Los Cristianos). These are normally small, however.
  • The climate encourages a high biodiversity on the island
  • There is attractive hiking and walking country in the higher altitude pinewoods.
  • The caldera of Mount Teide attracts many visitors and is in the centre of a national park. A cable car gives access to the summit
  • The caldera has been deemed a World heritage Site as of 2007
  • There are step pyramids at Guimar that were built by the native Guanches people in prehistoric times.

Growth of tourism

Tourism originally started in the North of the island, which was already fashionable to British and Spanish tourists to visit in the late 19th century. It is still the most popular destination for Spanish visitors to the Canary Islands.

In the 1960’s and 1970’s access to flights became far easier and cheaper, allowing more visitors. Longer paid holidays in much of the Western world encouraged people to take holidays to more exotic locations. With this boom tourist activity moved to the South of the country, resulting in rapid urbanisation of a long stretch of the Southern coastline from Los Cristianos to Playa De Las Americas. This area now attracts 60% of Tenerife’s tourists and houses many expatriates. Over 95% of British tourists stay there.

Resorts specialise in low-cost tourism.

Opportunities from tourism

  • Before tourism, Tenerife was a poor, agricultural island. Lack of employment forced people out to other countries. Tourism has counteracted this, and few young people now leave for work.
  • Tourism has created thousands of new jobs
  • It generates 60% of the island’s GDP.
  • Through the multiplier effect, income is generated through many industries
  • Tourism is year-round income
  • Tourism has had to cater for 5 million guests annually, meaning transport has been well upgraded
  • Tourism has its own airport- Tenerife South international airport, completed in 1978, which is the 6th busiest Spanish airport. Tenerife has another airport, and they are linked by a motorway, further helping transport links.
  • Teide National Park was designated in 1954 and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site due to tourists raising awareness of the importance for maintaining the environment  there.
  • Similarly, the Corona Forest Nature Park has been set up, with many other reserves.

Problems from tourism

  • Most new development is of poor quality in the South.
  • There was initially no planning for new developments, creating a concrete jungle, such as in Playa De Las Americas.
  • The towns are unattractive and over built
  • There are high congestion levels
  • The environmental quality reduced tourist visits.
  • Nightlife in some towns has meant the island has an image of rowdiness to potential visitors.
  • Average population growth in the south between 1980 and 2001 was 3.2% compared to an island wide figure of 1.1%. This indicates overcrowding in the South, and also correlates to the massive immigration of other Europeans.
  • Water is very scarce- water supplies are fixed while demand is rising. Most water is from aquifiers, causing water levels to fall and quality to fall too. Either more needs to be supplied by recycling waste or by desalinating sea water, but neither of these are cheap. There are 2 current desalination plants, but the energy for them has to be imported.
  • There are sewage disposal issues and there are reports of 3 sewage plants releasing raw sewage straight into the sea in tourist areas.
  • Beaches in the Southeast are mostly artificial, and supplying all the sand for them requires extensive dredging from the sea floor- and subsequently massive damage to marine ecosystems
  • Local culture is undermined due to the presence of so many British tourists
  • Only 1/3 of the arable land is now farmed
  • Young people leave rural areas for the cities to find work. this work is often low-paid and low-skilled.
  • The Canary Islands have the lowest average wages of anywhere in Spain

The future

The Tenerife Tourism Corporation has been trying to improve the island’s image, due to competition from cheaper destinations. Competitiveness decreasing has been an issue since 1986, when Spain joined the EU and labour costs increased. recent decline in visitor numbers suggest the island’s appeal is stagnating. Today’s tourists have higher expectations than those in the 1960’s and 1970’s.

Some 5* hotels, boutique hotels, gold courses and spas have been built to help attract wealthier tourists. This means fewer visitors, but the capital from each should result in higher profitability. Environmental pressure would also be reduced.

However, it is hard to suddenly improve the image of the island for tourists.

Ecotourism and heritage tourism are being promoted to help remove some pressure of the sea front.

Studland Bay- Part I

Over a million people visit the Studland Bay area yearly. Visitors on peak days are often greeted with signs saying that Studland Bay is full. These visitors mean a good management system is needed.

Studland Bay is protected by the National Trust and English Nature.

The Bay has a variety of habitats including a sea grass meadow off shore with seahorse breeding grounds and a SSSI around a lake near the dunes. In the system are many rare birds, meaning their habitats have to be maintained. All five native British species of reptiles can be found at Studland Bay. The habitats of these species, especially the sand lizard are carefully monitored.

To maintain the dune system, non native plants like birch scrub are removed on inner dune ridges to encourage more open growth of plants such as heather.There is a pattern of cutting down invading Scots Pine trees. Sallow Carr is cut in wetlands to encourage the growth of more moisture-loving plants.

Meanwhile, plants such as marram grass are being planted on the dunes to help stabilise them. This should reduce the impact of erosion upon the site.

Old dunes stretched to Redend Point at the very start of the Bay, but have been eroded away and the access road to the beach is now under threat of erosion. Gabions and steel pilings are being used to strengthen the beach front. Timber palisades are used further up the beach in a similar way.

Damage to the dunes was heightened during WWII as it was used as a practice site for military exercises; it thus has many bomb craters across the site. The effect of tourists is far greater than this, even.

Amenities at the site are very important. A suite of buildings were produced in the 1980s including a gift shop and cafe to accomodate for visitors.

Marked nature trails allow tourists to view the dunes without causing more damage to them. Zoning has had to occur on the shoreline to prevent clashes between activities.

Mexico City- Air Quality

Mexico City is located in a valley which traps pollutants within the local environment. This has lead to the city having major air pollution issues. In 1992, the UN described the air as the most polluted on the planet. In 1998, this earned it the reputation of the most dangerous city for children.

The government has thus been trying to improve their image.

Factors contributing to the low air quality

  • Industrial growth
  • Population boom (3 million in 1950 to 20 million now)
  • Proliferation of vehicles. 3.5 million vehicles in the city, 30% more than 20 years old.
  • Mexico City is about 2,240 m above sea level; there are lower oxygen levels at this altitude, so fuels will often perform incomplete combustion, releasing more dangerous chemicals such as Carbon Monoxide instead of Carbon Dioxide
  • Intense sunlight can turn chemicals into greater intensities of smog.

Solving the problem

In the 1990’s the government introduced air quality campaigns that included a rotating one-weekday ban on private car use. On days of high pollution there are more weekday bands and some bands on heavy industry. Car owners have to have their vehicles certified every 6 months.

Researchers on the air pollution issue have trained local people to have a greater awareness for the importance of air quality. They also trained people on better consumption and purchasing practices.

A support group was also set up to aid those affected by air pollution and those at higher risk of effect- the very young, the sick, and very old.

Tangible benefits

Due to the health impacts of various chemicals in the air pollution, many people were dying much younger than they would otherwise. More than 20 researchers from various research groups put together information on the benefits removing the pollution would have on the city. They estimated that removing one microgram per cubic metre of a chemical called PM10 would be worth about US$100 million annually. Reducing PM10 and Ozone by 10% would save US$760 million annually.

That translates to 33,287 fewer ER trips for respiratory issues and 266 fewer child deaths annually.

Kenya- Growth of Tourism

In 1958, the Board of Wildlife and Tourism was set up in Kenya to improve and increase tourism within the country. Independence was achieved in 1963, and with foreign investment, the Kenyan economy grew.

Revenue from tourism grew from US$25.2 million to US$40.4 million from 1963 to 1968.

The boom in the 1960’s of package holidays meant long haul flights were cheaper and made Kenya accessible to tourists. Kenya was one of the first LICs to open up to mass tourism. Kenya allows tourists to see any of 19 National Parks, as well as having a long coastline and dramatic scenery.

In 1976, the Board of Wildlife and Tourism made plans to imrpove facilities in new National Park and invest directly into tourist services.

Between 1981 and 1987 Kenya was the most popular African tourist destination, accounting for 30% of East African tourist arrivals. The shilling’s relative value fell, making the trip effectively cheaper for foreign visitors.

In the 1990’s, publicised murders of tourists caused a reduction in growth. Other African tourist destinations were catching up in popularity, growing to major competition. In 1995, South African tourism grew by 25% in revenue. Instability deterred many tourists.

Instability continued into the 2000’s. Terrorist attacks and riots in 2007 caused many governments (largely European) to advise tourists not to visit. This had a major effect as 70% of Kenyan tourist arrivals were European. Kenya is estimated to have lost US$500 million because of this. Increasing taxes also hindered growth as other countries became cheaper destinations.

India- Energy Mix

1973 Energy Mix

  • 61% renewables, including fuelwood
  • 22% coal
  • 15% oil
  • 2% HEP
  • 0% Gas
  • 0% Nuclear

2005 Energy Mix

  • 30% renewables, including fuelwood
  • 39% coal
  • 24% oil
  • 1% HEP
  • 5% Gas
  • 1% Nuclear

India’s energy consumption has increased by 300% since 1973. Population and demand for fuel have increased greatly, which has meant that India now has to rely on imports for its energy needs; particularly for more volatile regions of the world.

India’s own oil reserves are limited even as the country is becoming more oil reliant. India is training many engineers and is investing a lot of money in research and development of renewable fuels. With limited native resources, India is turning to nuclear power, and is reliant on Russian expertise to help manage its energy gap until technology, finances and infrastructure improve enough to support the use of renewable energy.

India is committed to researching and developing solar power sources. In March 2010, the World Bank invested US$20 million into developing further solar power stations such as the 2MW plant by India’s Azure Group. India plans to generate 20MW of solar power by 2020.

India has also built several dams:

Narmada Mega Dam Scheme

The scheme consists of 3,200 major, 135 medium and more than 3,000 smaller dams. The largest is the Sardar Saravar dam. The dam supplies water for agriculture, HEP and drinking water for 20 million people. Howver, it is mostly a vanity project; the same result could have been achieved with far smaller projects.