Brazil- Tourism

Brazil’s natural beauty and international from the Carnival allow Brazil to attract thousands annually, right up to 2014- 2015 and 2016 figures being yet to be consolidated (although they have likely fallen slightly so far this year due to the Zika virus.

The main attractions are Rio De Janeiro- with it’s Carnival- and the natural beauty of the country. This includes much of the Amazon rainforest, waterfalls, 8,850 km of coastline, volcanic beaches and many other attractions. Ecotourism has been a major reason for the Brazilian increase in tourism. The average growth of ecotourism in Brazil annually is around 12%.

The average number of tourists increased from 1.5 million in the 1990’s to over 4 million in 2005. Brazil had 5 million visitors in 2008. Tourists in the summer of 2004 generated US$2.78 x10^9. During the 2004 Carnival in just two weeks in the winter, 540,000 tourists visited Rio De Janeiro, generating US$270 million. In 2005, tourism represented 7% of Brazil’s employment, employing over 8 million people. Revenue from tourists reached US$5.78 x10^9 in 2008.

Benefits to tourism in Brazil

  • Popular to invest in by other countries, such as Spain; Brazil and Spain entered a partnership in 2005. It is a common destination for Spanish tourists.
  • Spain has invested US$74 million into developing hotels, infrastructure and Northern ports.
  • Small improvements to Rio De Janeiro’s major drug issues, violence and slum dwellings have been made from tourist money.
  • Money has been spent on improving security
  • Bonito in the Pantanal region has ecperienced a 2–30% increase in annual tourism; in a town of 20,000 residents, 2,000 are employed in ecotourism
  • Demand for restaurants, clubs, bars, shops, hotels and other services have improved.
  • Tourism has allowed rural dwellers a greater variety of employment; previously there were few options outside of logging, poaching and mining, but now locals have more of a variety of jobs they can enter.
  • Locals are paid to help preserve the environment as tourists don’t want to see the evidence of logging or mining in the forests.
  • Ecotourism improves local education and health compared to doing harder labour such as mining. 

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Norwegian Fjords Ecotourism

According to the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO), sustainable tourism should:

  • Preserve nature, culture and the environment
  • Strengthen social prosperity
  • Be economically viable

Norway was chosen as 1 of 4 pilot destinations by the Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) for “Early adopters of the GSTC criteria for destinations.” This was a minimum criteria needed to be considered socially, culturally and environmentally sustainable. As a pilot, the fjords will be used to test out the criteria’s suitability for more general use.

Some measures by Norwegian tourism companies:

  • Using public transport for their tours.
  • One business, Fjord Tours was certified as an eco-business in 2010, and was designed for independent travelers.
  • Using public buses and hotels run by independent local businesses.

Attractions to the Fjords

  • River-rafting
  • Kayaking
  • Canoeing
  • River boarding
  • Caving
  • Dog sledding
  • Snowshoe hikes or normal hikes
  • Abseiling
  • Fishing
  • Swimming
  • Climbing
  • Tours through the fjords
  • Remote location
  • Strict environmental regulations
  • Birdwatching
  • Natural attractions; mountains, waterfalls, clear waters, a variety of wildlife, includng eagles, seals, porpoises and seabirds, small fishing villages and local culture, UNESCO sites

The fjords are also used to generate hydroelectric power by the use of dams, for agriculture and rural development. The fjords were used for wartime resistance.

The Voningfossen waterfall gets 655,000 visitors annually as of 2005. Floibanen railways gets 1,131,707 visitors annually as of 2007.

Brazil- Investment in the World Cup

The FIFA world cup had a huge effect on Brazil’s tourist industry. It brought in R$57,217,000 in 24 different economic sectors. R$41,900,000 was direct and R$15,317,000 was indirect.

Investments (in Millions)

  • Media R$6,513
  • Stadiums R$4,624.45
  • Hotels R$3,163.93
  • Safety R$1,697.38
  • Reurbanisation R$2,837.3
  • Highways R$1,441.02
  • Airports R$1,213.74
  • IT R$309
  • Fan Parks R$203.85
  • Energy supply R$280.52

Manau is in the middle of the rainforest. Fan parks were set up aroudn the city to view matches and events.

According to FIPE the World Cup added US$7.6 x10^9 to the Brazilian economy. Brazil expected to have spent US$4.1 x10^9, equivalent to a +0.5% change in the GDP.

Namibia Energy Mix

Namibia has a GDP per capita of US$6,400. Its main industries are agriculture and mining, both of which are energy intensive; the country has an annual per capita energy usage of 7.5MWh.

Namibia relies on fuels imported from South Africa. Electricity generation runs at 387MWh but demand can exceed this, so Namibia has to import 50% of its energy. Namibia produces less than 1/3 of its energy needs.

70% of urban households are connected to the national grid. In rural areas, only 15% of homes are connected.

A few energy reserves within the country have been identified but overseas investment would  need to be put in to use them.

Namibia is the world’s 6th largest exporter of uranium ore, so it would be good for the country to be able to use this rather than exporting. However, this would need foreign financial and management aid.

Namibia recieves an average solar radiation of 6kWhm^-2 daily, which could be used to supply solar energy to the grid. Namibia is considering setting up concentrated solar plants and coastal wind farms and a mega dam on the border with Angola.

Kibera, Nairobi- Part II

Solutions for improving the slums

Low cost flats:

  • 770  families rehoused
  • Inhabitants were involved in the planning
  • Running water, toilets and electricity were integrated into the plans
  • Lower crime rates than the slums
  • Gives pride in people and the community
  • Funded by the government, charities and private loans
  • Making homes permanent, as the shanty settlers have no right to the land they live on

A charity (Practical Action from the UK) has been developed to make low-cost roofing tiles for local people to use for roofing. Two main water pipes have been provided by the Kenyan government and the World Bank. Medical facilities are provided by charities, training locals. The UN Settlement Program provides affordable electricity at 300 Kenyan shillings per shack. Toilets and wash blocks were built and cess pits are regularly emptied. A Bio Gas Station has been built to manage human waste.

The UK government has funded sanitation projects and a UK charity has sponsored a community clinic called “soap box”. The NCC (Nairobi City Council) have introduced a market stall project to create employment, but people require primary credit to start their stalls. A primary school has been built for the slum for children that have been introduced by CFK (Carolina for Kibera, a charity run by the University of Carolina). Comic Relief supports the work in Kibera, particularly with AIDs.


KENSUP has a goal of improving the livelihood of 5.3 million slum dwellers in Kenya by 2020. The program started in 2001, and by 2003 a Memorandum of Understanding was signed by the Kenyan government and UN-HABITAT for a strategy for implementing this.

Alaska- Conflicts and Pressures


The USofA has high demands for oil and a desire to not be dependent on the supply given by other, typically less stable countries.

Oppositions to the exploitation of Alaskan oil were largely based on the fragile tundra ecosystem of the state.

  • Only a few cm of top soil thaw in the summer, so productivity is low in plant life
  • Below the arctic circle, the tundra makes way for taiga forest which has a variety of coniferous tree types
  • Supported by these environments are a wide variety of other species such as caribou, moose, bears, wolves and wolverines.

The US Government’s National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 meant that all companies had to consider the environment and recognise the rights of indigenous peoples.

  • To prevent permafrost melting, oil installations at well-heads are raised on mattresses
  • Dalton Highway (open since 1994) provides a supply route from the South to Prudhoe Bay in the North. It is built 2 m off the tundra surface on a bed of gravel and sand.
  • Workers at oil fields who do 2 week shifts through the year are flown in by Air Alaska from Anchorage (in the South) and lie in Deadhorse in raised, heated cabins
  • The Trans-Alaskan Pipeline, carrying oil 1,300 km from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez started being constructed in 1974 and was completed in 1977 at a cost of US$8 x 10^9. 5 pumping stations control oil flow. The pipeline is insulated and for most of its length is raised- both for access and to minimise environmental damage. The pipeline is built with a “zigzag” path to allow space for expansion of the pipeline in summer without the pipe breaking and leaking oil onto the tundra.
  • BP became the sole oil extractor at Prudhoe Bay in 2,000 but had to abandon parts of the oil field in 2009 as 900,000 litres of oil leaked from corroded pipes
  • In 1978 the Government increased areas of conservation in Alaska by 23 million hectare and by another 42 million in 1980

The oil is shipped out from Valdez by companies such as Exxon to refineries elsewhere in the USofA. Valdez is also dependent on commercial fishing.


  • The Exxon Valdez oil spill in 1989 damaged large sections of the coastline
  • Since 2006 some double-hull oil tankers, offering more protection against potential obstacles, have been operating in Alaskan waters.

The area also has a threat of earthquakes and tsunamis due to being on a destructive plate boundary.

Geological activity

On 27th March 1964 an earthquake measuring 9.2 on the Richter scale, epicentre 112 km East of Anchorage occurred resulting in land beside Prince William Sound sinking around 2 m. Tsunami over 30m high have hit Valdez before- Valdez has had to be relocated to a higher, safer site because of this.


Tourism in Alaska is mainly concentrated in June, July and August, and in the South. Many visitors come in cruise ships.

  • Tourists are bused between National Parks to admire wildlife and scenery
  • Many anglers from around the world visit Alaska
  • Many ferries and tourist vehicles also carry rangers who identify wildlife and geographical features


32% of Alaska is covered in forest. There are 4.8 million hectares of commercial forest

  • In 2004, 272 fires were caused by lightning and 424 by people One by Dalton Highway destroyed 195,576 hectares of forest

Ash from fire can release minerals which help plant growth and also leaves areas of the forest floor exposed to sunlight so more plants can grow there.


In 2,000 Alaska had 626,932 residents, and now has 736,732 in 2016.

  • To safeguard subsistence lifestyles, a government act in 1980 gave the rural people priority in hunting and fishing on federal lands. There have been subsequent disputes between rural and urban Alaskans, due to claims of being discriminated against. It is difficult for wardens to enforce this.
  • Alaskan residents have benefited from oil revenue. In 1976 the Alaska Permanent Fund was established. At least 25% of all money earned from minerals goes into this fund. By 1980 oil revenues had allowed Alaska to abolish income taxes. Alaska is now the 4th richest US state.


The Arctic may have up to 25% of the world’s undiscovered oil and gas reserves. In 2007, Russia put claims to the Arctic which has created tensions with other Arctic nations and territories, including Denmark (Greenland), Norway and Canada, as well as the USofA


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Dubai- Tourism

Dubai attracted 8.41 million tourists in 2010 and 14.26 million in 2014. It is now the 4th most visited city (after London, Bangkok and Paris). The majority of tourists are Middle Eastern.

In 1968 only 13 cars were registered in Dubai; now there is enough congestion that double Decker buses are being installed to remove some of the traffic.

Dubai is a leading city for tourist spending with over US$11.6 million being spent in 2015.

  • The first tourists came in 1892 when Dubai declared an exemption from taxing foreign traders; there is still a 0% income tax. This encourages the sale of holiday homes especially.
  • Success of modern flight providers has increased accessibility.
  • There are many one-off attractions such as the world’s largest aquarium and shopping centre.
  • Historically, Middle Eastern states have been unstable but the UAE has become more stable in recent years, removing political deterrants
  • Islamic law has become more lenient, allowing the drinking of alcohol and people wearing bikinis (although this is meant to be restricted to their own properties).
  • An increase in living capacity has encouraged tourists to stay longer and closer to the city. By January 2015 there were 93,030 hotel rooms in Dubai.


Scarborough’s spa waters were discovered in 1626 and wealthy people came to “take the waters”. The waters were believed to have medicinal value. By 1760 lodging houses had been built. In 1845 a railway connection enabled people to ravel ot the area cheaply for a day. By the early twentieth century, many people were visiting for a week as a holiday.

Scarborough expanded rapidly Southwards. By 1915 no space was left between the sea and the scarp slope, so a new area to the North was developed. The resort started stagnating in the 1970’s as people could then afford to go on cheap holidays abroad to sunnier areas.

Chesil Beach

Chesil Beach is a 29km long bank. Pebbles vary from around pea size at Burton Bradstock to tennis ball size at Portland. The grading of particles is due to longshore drift. Waves in the prevailing wind’s direction are strong enough to carry any sediment, regardless of size, while when waves travel in the other direction they are weaker so can only take smaller sediment. The main direction of the wind at Chesil beach is from the South West.

At its tallest, the beach is up to 15m high. Chesil Beach started as an offshore bar 10,000 years ago which gradually rolled onshore as sea levels rose.

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Cuckmere Haven Management

Cuckmere Haven attracts 350,000 tourists per year. The land is protected only by a wooden groyne and a concrete sea wall. The wall’s maintenance is paid for by a £200,000 crowd-funded web campaign by residents in the 200-year cottages directly behind it (at; dozens of people have already been involved in plugging the holes in the concrete wall.There are no official protections to the cottages.

The cottages were originally coastguard cottages and were built in the 1820s when smugglers used the estuary of cuckmere haven for bringing in barrels of French goods like brandy without having to pay duty. The valley later became an attraction for painters and tourists. During WWII the river was used for navigation for Luftwaffe bombers heading for London. The estuary had pillboxes built into it, as well as tank traps and barbed wire. It was one of the few places not protected by cliffs on the South coast of England.

There is a brass plaque to commemorate the Canadian soldiers who died in 1940 when the Haven was strafed by a Messerschmit. The cottages were requisitioned by the army and, in compensation for the damage to the cottages by the end of the war, a sea wall was built in front in 1947.

The sea was at least 30m further away at the start of the 20th century than in 1947 when the wall was built.